We present results from IronTract, the first challenge to evaluate tractography on the two-shell diffusion scheme of the Human Connectome Project (HCP). Accuracy was evaluated by comparison to tracer injections in the same macaque brains as the diffusion data. Training and validation datasets involved different injection sites. We observed that optimizing data analysis with respect to one injection site does not guarantee optimality for another; encouragingly, two teams could achieve consistently high performance in both datasets. We also found that, when analysis methods are optimized, the HCP scheme may achieve similar accuracy as a more demanding diffusion spectrum imaging acquisition.
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